?Management and the Role of managers in nation building?
The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class
One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes, technology, etc. In order to maximize its effectiveness.
English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example management of a corporation. Historically this use of the term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.
Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management
Throughout the years, the role of managers has changed. Years ago, managers were thought of as people who were "the boss." While that might still be true today, many managers view themselves as leaders rather than as people who tell subordinates what to do. The role of a manager is comprehensive and often very complex. Not everyone wants to be a manager, nor should everyone consider being a manager.
Nature of managerial work
In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely.
In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor.
Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. If they fail to convince employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations.
Some would define management as an art, while others would define it as a science. Whether management is an art or a science isn't what is most important. Management in business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals. Managers are the people to whom this management task is assigned, and it is generally thought that they achieve the desired goals through the key functions of (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) directing, and (4) controlling. Some would include leading as a managing function, but for the purposes of this discussion, leading is included as a part of directing. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
In general, planning can be strategic planning (Long range, Top), tactical planning (short range, Lower), or contingency planning (alternative solution).
Some managers direct by empowering workers. This means that the manager doesn't stand like a taskmaster over the workers barking out orders and correcting mistakes. It is generally thought that workers who are involved with the decision-making process feel more of a sense of ownership in their work, take more pride in their work, and are better performers on the job.
The Role of the Manager
I have long considered management to be a calling. In my view, to call management a job, position, or title is completely missing the mark.
I believe that the truly great managers of the world have answered their calling to bring the very best out in people, maximizing their potential. They count their successes in counting the people who thrive working with them ?not for them, but with them in the pursuit of a common cause.
Niccol? Machiavelli in his book the Prince- recommended that leaders use fear?but not hatred?to maintain control.
Management is situational and complex; it is mentoring opportunity which happens individual by individual. If I were to reduce it to its essence, I would boil the role of managers down to four things.
1. People: Managers concentrate on strengths and make weaknesses irrelevant.
Discover what strengths each of the people you manage possess.
Place people where they are called on to employ those strengths and capitalize on them.
Give people authority to completely own their responsibilities.
2. Place: Managers create great workplaces where people thrive.
Focus on creating an environment where rewarding work happens.
Continually work to remove obstacles, barriers, and excuses.
Be the steward of the organizational culture.
3. Mission: Managers get the work to make perfect sense.
Connect the work to be done with the meaning why.
Plan to succeed with a viable business model, so people always see realistic possibility.
Encourage people to work on the enterprise with you, not just within it.
4. Vision: Managers expect and promote the exceptional.
Never settle for mediocrity; champion excellence so people rise to the occasion.
Lead, mentor and coach. Harness energy and drive action. Do with, not for.
Foster sequential and consequential learning so people continue to grow.
We still love easy-to-remember acronyms though, and they remain golden for learning focus. Therefore the above can be looked at as POP? management.
P? People-driven /Value-driven, O? Objective is still important: What we call it now, is usually vision, mission, and strategy.
P?? Process/place is still important too, for we can?t ignore task, the transactional stuff of our businesses. However it is Purpose-driven Process. We have no patience for any other kind.
People expect more today, which means they expect more of you as a manager.
Indeed, the dynamism of today's marketplace calls for managers with diverse skills.
To be an effective manager, it is necessary to possess many skills. Different levels of management in the organizational structure also require different types of management skills. Generally, however, managers need to have communication skills, human skills- Human skills cannot be learned alone in a classroom; they are best learned by working with people like (temperament, Diversity in the workplace), computer skills, time-management skills -Good time-management skills can be learned, but managers must be willing to prioritize activities, delegate, deal with interruptions, organize work, and perform other acts that will make them better managers, and technical skills.
That?s why managers matter, and why management is vitally important.
But however deep the political divisions, business operations continue to span the globe, and executives still have to figure out how to run the organisations efficiently and well to help in nation building.
Through a flexible management process, in which business, country, and functional managers form a triad of different perspectives that balance one another, nations can build three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency and competitiveness; national level responsiveness and flexibility; and cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a worldwide basis.
Managers play the pivotal role in nation building not only in meeting local customer needs but also in satisfying the host government's requirements and defending their company's market positions against local and external competitors.
A nation?s greater access to the scarcest of all corporate resources, human capability, is a definite advantage when managers are recognized for the value of harvesting advanced (and often less expensive) scientific expertise by upgrading local development businesses into global centers of technical excellence through the transformation of piecemeal information into strategic intelligence.
In practice, the specialization of assets and resources swells the flow of products and components among national units, requiring a firm hand to synchronize and control that flow within the economy.
Yet at a time when information, knowledge, and expertise have become more specialized, organization can use learning to create and spread innovations through the transfer of specialized knowledge, while also connecting scarce resources and capabilities across national borders that can be of huge benefits to the nation.
To achieve this important objective, managers must scan for specialized information worldwide, "cross pollinate" leading-edge knowledge and best practice, and champion innovations that may offer transnational opportunities and applications.
A company's ability to identify individuals with potential, legitimize their diversity, and integrate them into the organization's corporate decisions is the single clearest indicator that the manager and that the company has contributed to nation building.
Therefore, the business manager (strategist + architect + coordinator), the country manager (sensor + builder + contributor), the functional manager (scanner + cross-pollinator + champion), and the corporate manager (leader + talent scout + developer).
In conclusion, I would like to take this opportunity to draw your attention to the facts that:
Management works in the system. Managers/Leadership works on the system.
Success equals goals; all else is commentary.
The Success= Skills + Strategy (SS) i.e. 20/80 approach will help to build the manager and in turn build the nation. It is quite conceivable to do this effectively if we improve mechanisms of coordination and introduce innovative financing structures.